Monthly Archives: December 2012

Various Types of Paper Manufacturers and Their Production Techniques.

The History

The art of paper making has been traced  to China, where the history suggests it was invented in the province of Han Dynasty. Paper was made out of mulberry, hemp waste and fiber. Thus, Chinese were the earliest pioneers for manufacture of paper in its earliest form. However, the technology spread from the Middle East Asia to Europe where the first paper mill was established.

What is Paper?

Paper was derived from the Latin term Papyrus, which was actually a plant and the basic raw material used for its manufacturing.

Modern Paper Manufacturing Techniques:

Use of paper got a huge boost after industrialization and its indispensability in the areas of Education, Academics and related purposes made it one of the prized industry in terms of production. Some of the ways of contemporary paper manufacturing techniques are discussed in this article.

The basic ingredient used for manufacture of paper is wood and production experts involved in the processing of this technique call it as “Softwood”. Now since we know the basic raw materials used for manufacturing of paper, here is the brief overview of its manufacturing process.

Paper_Manufacturers_311220121513The first basic process of paper manufacturing involves ‘chemical pulping’. In this process the lignin (a chemical compound of wood) is separated from cellulose fibers.  The papers made from chemical pulping are called wood papers. Further, there are two processes for this the first one is called the Sulfite process practiced before the First World War and which is now outdated. The contemporary pulping process is known as Kraft process. During the pulping process of separating lignin from cellulose fiber, excessive heat is produced as a result of the chemical separation and subsequent reaction. This heat is used by paper mills to run its generators and thus gives ample opportunity for the owners of these mills to be self reliant in generation of power and run paper mills. The diagrammatic picture of the mechanical and chemical processes is duly illustrated above.

Another pulping process adopted for paper manufacturing is the ‘mechanical pulping’. This process uses a technique called TMP or Thermo Mechanical Pulp where huge steam heated refineries are used to convert the pulp to fiber. However this method although economical than the chemical pulping process does not separate the lignin from fiber and the resultant product would be weakened paper, mainly due to its inability to separate to lignin.

Paper Manufacturing – The Quicker way.

Although the methods suggested above are still in practice and still continue to be the basic and ideal methods of initial process of fiber separation, the advent of modern and state of art machinery has greatly reduced manpower and process ambiguities in manufacturing of paper. Another important point to be noted here as discussed in the earlier paragraphs, paper is an indispensable commodity of our daily lives from school note books to bank guarantees paper is an all important commodity. Hence the demand for paper has risen alarmingly, the production techniques not only demand less process orientation but also quick and efficient manufacturing.

Paper is made on Fourdrinier machine and its variations. The machine has four distinct sections such as the Forming Section, Press Section, Drying Section and Calender Section. In this kind of manufacturing of paper the conveyor belt and plastic fabric mesh are used and the different seperation techniques mentioned above create a final paper product.

Finally, the paper goes through a finishing process where smoothness and gloss are imparted to paper. The uncoated paper is given some additional features like adding calcium carbonate or china clay to improve its quality.

Leading Paper Manufacturers across the Globe

As per information and statistics obtained from Pulp and Paper an International Magazine, the top manufacturers as listed in the magazine are:

1.    International Paper ( U.S)
2.    Procter & Gamble (U.S)
3.    Oji Paper (Japan)
4.    SCA (Sweden)
5.    Stora Ensa (Finland)
6.    Nippon Paper (Japan)
7.    UPM  (Finland)
8.    Kimberly Clark (U.S)
9.    Mondi, (South Africa)
10.    Smurfit Kappa (Netherlands)

The ranking is based on the net sales achieved by these Companies in the year 2007.

Leading Paper Producing Countries:

Top 10 paper producing countries are listed below:-

1.    China
2.    U.S
3.    Japan
4.    Germany
5.    Canada
6.    Finland
7.    Sweden
8.    Korea
9.    Indonesia
10.    Brazil

Paper manufacturing industry is “environmentally sensitive” considering its energy consumption, water abstraction, waste generation and more importantly raw material depletion. Environmentalists criticize, large scale deforestastion of trees for the manufacturing process of paper and also its related hazards of waste management etc. Use of paper for non productive purposes and un-important routine purposes should be restricted. With advent of electronic communication there is an urgent need to conserve its use for further generations to come.

This article was written by Nastha Williams on behalf of PaperIndex is a leading marketplace for pulp and paper manufacturers, paper traders, chemical suppliers and other industry stakeholders. For more information on paper industry, please visit Wikipedia.

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Posted by on December 31, 2012 in Manufacturers


Pregnant Adoption and its Many Considerations

The decision to adopt a child is clearly one that must be made with careful consideration of all factors effecting how a family or individual would emotionally and fiscally support a child. There is also the additional decision of whether to adopt an infant that has not yet been born (pregnant adoption) or an older child. Choosing to adopt a child when the birthmother has not yet given birth carries with it both the excitement of raising a newborn baby and also certain risks.

Before deciding whether or not to opt for pregnant adoption, potential parents must first assess whether or not they are truly prepared for child rearing. The first step in deciding whether adoption is the right course of action is to decide what other avenues are available and if those might be preferable for ones situation (for example, artificial insemination with a sperm donor etc.). If other desired avenues are not available, then the mourning process must be undertaken before fully committing to the idea of adoption. The potential adoptive parents must then do the needed research into what the process of pregnant adoption entails and decide whether or not this often stressful and lengthy process is the desired course of action.

If pregnant adoption – where the child is yet unborn – is an option that an individual or couple is considering, then it is worth knowing that adoption of this sort can take longer than adopting an older child. However, before making this decision one should consider what age of adoptive child would be the best fit for their circumstances and home life.  The adoption process will generally be quicker for those adoptive parents who are open to a wider age range of children than simply newborns, but if raising a child from infancy is something that has been decided upon as a necessary requirement, then this is the path one should pursue.

If parents decide that pregnant adoption is not the option for them, then there are other decisions to be made. First in importance is arming oneself with the knowledge of psychological or medical issues surrounding adopted children, in particular the potential stressor that foster care may have been. An older child will have a history and background that has to be dealt with in a respectful yet upfront manner; thankfully counseling and guidance is available to all adoptive parents. Another consideration is how much contact the adoptive parents wish to have with the birth parents; there are options for both an ‘open’ and a ‘closed’ adoption. In the first scenario the birth mother would be in contact with adoptive parents throughout the process and perhaps after the official adoption, whereas in the latter, neither party would make contact.

Needless to say with the process of pregnant adoption or adoption of an older child, there are many factors to take into consideration. Emotional and fiscal stability are of vital importance to the preparedness of adoptive parents and are a requirement that all reputable adoption agencies will enforce.

This article was written by Veda Palmiter, on behalf of AdoptHelp, a full service domestic adoption center specializing in both independent and collaborative adoptions. To know about child adoption, you may visit Wikipedia.

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Posted by on December 29, 2012 in Others


How Hiring an Outside Service Provider can Increase your Revenues

“Customization” is the word you want to hear as a small to medium sized business.  Being a smaller practice often means that your needs are slightly different, your policies, and the relationships you maintain with your clients are important to you. A small practice means that you provide more face time with your patients and you want a billing service that feels the same way about you as a business.  Billing service providers come in many forms – a lot of them are large, one size fits all companies that may meet your basic needs but won’t tailor themselves to you.  Finding a company willing to design a billing service around your individual business needs will make running your business much easier.  Owning a business means you are responsible for everything, most importantly the revenue cycle management that leads to insurance companies being billed in a reasonable time so that the bills get paid.

Being able to upload, download and otherwise transfer information quickly and securely is important.  Revenue cycle management is what keeps you in practice and good management promises longevity. Transferring billing data is not only a matter of security and privacy but also time management. The less time you spend worrying about your billing efficiency the more time you can dedicate to your practice.  Many times it’s possible to transfer existing data into the billing service provider, so you won’t have to start from scratch or bend over backwards dealing with compatibility issues. This can be a make or break process for your revenue cycle management. If you switch billing service providers, you want flawless continuity where accounts will stay intact and accurate. Finding a great service provider isn’t just about the obvious benefits, such as increased revenue, smoother cash flow and better client tracking – it’s also about having access to personalized reports.  You want to be able to access productivity reports, referral reports and all those other bits and pieces of information that help you build a better business while providing optimal care to your patients.

Revenue_Cycle_Management_281220121503Some billing providers also take care to ensure that information is accurate, checking that billing information is uniform across the board and giving you instant access to view your account. Using encrypted data and firewalls keeps your billing information private and secure while still allowing for ease of access. If you are in a position where you want to begin using an outside source for revenue cycle management or switch from one provider to another – now is the time. There are some up and coming companies, offering some leading business solutions, out there today. Great companies will assist with the transition, making it as painless as possible and maybe even recuperate some previously lost revenue.  In most cases tackling outstanding accounts is an additional service but you want to net as much revenue as possible so take into consideration that there is the option of reviving previously written-off accounts if you think it’s worth the effort.

Perhaps the key thing to keep in mind when deciding how to handle your businesses billing is, do you have the time to waste monitoring the revenue cycle management? Would it not be more cost effective and efficient to hand it over to a team of professionals that will track your revenue stream in more ways, from more angles than you could ever imagine?

This article was written by Alona Korslund, on behalf of Emerald Health, offering comprehensive revenue cycle management to improve your medical practice’s profitability. For more information on revenue cycle management, you may also visit eHow.

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Posted by on December 28, 2012 in Health


Every Woman Wants to Look Hot Like the Models in Maaji Swimwear

Every woman wants to look hot while keeping cool in the summertime. Some of those women think this includes a swimsuit cover up, lacking the confidence to show off most of their skin in public. However, with the right suit design any body type can be flattered and flattery makes women feel good. Take a Maaji swimsuit, for example. Their website is equipped with a “Style Center” to navigate you through the task of choosing the swimsuit best suited for you. With their eye popping colors, the latest style trends, and the ability to separately purchase tops and bottom, the only hard part will be deciding which one to get!

Body type and skin tone are the most important things to consider when taking the plunge to find that perfect suit.  Pear shaped bodies may want to play down their pear bottoms.  A cute boy short paired with a bust enhancing halter gives that hourglass illusion women want.  Apple shaped bodies do very well in a solid, bust enhancing one piece suit. Strapless with vertical striping on the sides, it is perfect for that slimming effect.  Are you a bit on the short side? Well, petite bodies are complemented by bottoms with a high cut leg, like the Maaji Swimsuit Raspberry Macaron.  This style will make your legs look much longer!

Women know what colors look best on them, but some still don’t take into account how much the right color can affect your appearance in a swimsuit. Fair skin maidens with warm undertones and freckles look best in earthy shades of brown and green. Red will also bring out the warm glow of your skin. Those who are fair with a cool, clear complexion look amazing in berry and wine shades, and variations of turquoise at the other end of the spectrum.  Olive skin exotics can wear blues and greens anytime, like Maaji’s Dreamy Great Blue bikini. Deeper purples, like eggplant also bring out olive complexions natural highlights.  Bronze goddesses look best in shades of orange and green. These ladies can also wear rich colors, like burgundy, with confidence. For our African American or exotic looking queens, black and shades of brown will look sophisticated. They can even pull off white and red and other bright tones which highlight the richness of their skin tone. With so many options and flattering styles that make all skin tones and all the body types look fabulous, ladies are no longer short of options, especially when they use options like those found in the Maaji swimsuit line.

You no longer have to dread buying that new suit! With a little research and an extensive variety of styles and colors to choose from (not to mention the vast amount of accessories and cover ups available) you will be able to complete your summer look. In fact, you will find that a line like Maaji swimsuit make the task fun and exciting. No doubt that you need additional reasons to look for the fun and sun but this certainly does add on another reason to look forward to summertime!

This article was written by Delinda Hoglund, one behalf of Azura Swimwear, offering you the best range of swimwear to flaunt your curves. To know more about one piece swim wears, you may also visit Wikipedia.

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Posted by on December 26, 2012 in Shopping


Online Resume Templates for Actors

Resume templates for those in the acting profession are designed to help grab attention of the casting directors. Directors receive hundreds of applications everyday from hopeful candidates. So, if you want to make your case stronger, it is highly important that you create a good resume and market your acting skills and abilities in front of the directors. Resume templates come in handy for busy professionals, who do not have time to prepare their resumes and thus lose every time an opportunity comes their way.

Resume_Templates_221220120941The previous roles you have played are very important. It shows that you have successfully auditioned in the past. You can prepare a list of the roles you have played since the elementary school level to show your experience. Also, make sure to mention the training and workshops you attended, as it is a good way to show your dedication and also interest in expanding the acting skills.

Include your educational qualifications as well. Write about your basic education and also acting courses you have attended. Mentioning details about certifications you have received from renowned acting schools will give an additional boost to your resume.

Resume templates must contain details about your knowledge about different languages, athletics, singing and dancing skills. Make sure you are not stretching the truth too far. Your application is likely to get cancelled, if you are caught lying about your Danish language skills. If you have diverse experiences to talk to about in the field of commercials, TVs, movies and theatres, create a separate section for each. This shows your versatility and your ability to adapt any kinds of roles.

Since your resume will be the bridging gap between you and your director, you must be very careful while choosing the right resume template. All your efforts of wowing the directors will go to drains if you are able to make it to the audition rounds. You might land yourself with the role of a lifetime with the right resume.

Once you have prepared the draft, take a print out to look at the feel, look, presentation and layout of the resume. You can get plenty of ideas about how to go about the work experience, achievements, skills, when you choose a well structured resume template. Since it is matter of your career, it is worth considering the different samples available online.

There are plenty of resume templates that come with over complicated designs and colours. Look for the traditional formats; also make sure they are not labelled as “outdated”, before using them.

Create a separate section detailing your contact information, so that the recruiters can get in touch with you for the further recruitment procedures. So, make sure your resume is complete with all necessary details such as nationality, marital status, gender, birth etc.

So, look into the different resume templates for actors that will help you further your chances in this competitive industry.

This article was written by Sol Birney, on behalf of Resume Surgeon, offering you comprehensive and reliable resume writing services. For more info on writing resumes, you may visit Wikianswers.

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Posted by on December 22, 2012 in Business


All about Stucco Home Repairs in Columbus

Stucco homes are extremely durable and last long. Stucco adds a different character and value to your homes. Stucco is made of aggregate, water and binder.

Traditionally, stucco was made of water, sand and lime. The modern stucco Columbus homes are made of water, sand and Portland cement. Sometimes glass fibers and acrylics are added to improve structural properties of stucco material.
Even now, stucco continues to remain the most favored material for wall covering. Availability, durability and versatility are some of the factors that make it one of the most desirable options in Columbus and in different parts of the world. Most of the historical buildings have stucco covering on the walls that show how popular stucco has been over the years.

Stucco is the most practical building material in Columbus, as this water resistant coating protects a house from fire, rain and wind. Moreover, it is also durable and less expensive compared to the artistic stone work finishes. However, it is very essential that you contact stucco repair experts to keep the material in good condition for years to come.

Since some of the unavoidable factors like water entering the building structure through doors and windows, roofs around the chimneys cannot be checked all the time, deterioration in stucco materials calls for remediation. Other factors that cause deterioration in stucco materials are leaky gutters, moisture from underground, downspouts, intrusion of water through walls, improper drainage system etc.

Since most of the stucco problems are water related, different methods are applied to correct them. Below are the steps that stucco repair experts in Columbus follow to fix problems:

1.    Damage Assessment:

Stucco repair experts at first assess the extent to which the stucco material has been damaged. It is very essential to determine the source of the problem, which actually remains rooted in the building. The experts perform necessary repairs before application of the fix.

2.    Identifying the Type of Stucco Used:

Analyzing the type of stucco material used helps in identifying the compatible type of color, composition, system and texture of the stucco. It is in this step that different stucco remediation options are also considered by the experts. Stucco Columbus experts inspect the areas that needs a repair, rather than correcting the entire wall.

3.    Application of Fix: Once the compatibility has been determined, the proper stucco remediation process follows.
Though stucco is a very durable material and lasts long, you should not take it to be a completely maintenance free material. So, if you have a stucco home, make sure to stay in touch with the repair experts, who shall inspect your home from time to time and carry out the necessary remedial processes. Internet is a good way to know about different stucco repair services in Columbus. You can gather information about the quality of services they have been offering over the years, so that you can be completely sure before hiring them.

This article was written by Lisa Debraga, on behalf of Rhino Shield, offering you effective exterior painting and stucco repair services. For more information on stucco, you may visit Wikipedia.

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Posted by on December 21, 2012 in Painting



Equipment and Tools Used in Pilates Singapore Studios

If you visit a Pilates Singapore studio, you can find plenty of equipment and tools there. One of the most popular pieces of equipment that you can find in a studio is the Reformer. This was a creation of Joseph Pilates. This machine is made of wooden frame, a head rest, foot bar, springs, shoulder blocks and a padded moveable seat. Exercises can be performed in different positions such as lying down, standing, kneeling, sitting etc. Straps are connected to a pulley in the wooden frame. The springs can be adjusted according to your convenience.

Pilates_Singapore_151220120901Cadillac is another instrument you can find in Pilates Singapore studios. This is also known as Trapeze Table. It comes as a separate table or sometimes it can be used with a set of apparatus attached to the Reformer Machine. The way this machine is been used, has popularized the name Trapeze Table.

Vertical posts in Cadillac extend up to 3 feet to 4 feet from the side of the table and connected to the posts. This machine is very convenient for those who are bed ridden. There are cuffs for ankles, a trapeze bar, springs and loops for arms and legs that you can find hanging from the bars. Body’s own resistance is used to strengthen the body.

Wunda Chair and Ladder Barrel are the other devices found in Pilates Singapore studios. Ladder Barrel is made of wood and has two different parts. One side looks like a barrel with a curved top, the other side like a short ladder that is of the height of three or four rungs. Stretching exercises are best performed with this machine.

The Wunda Chair is also made of wood. It is a padded seat with straps and a foot rest. You can perform different exercises sitting or standing on a padded seat. In many Pilates studios in Singapore this machine is used for training in small groups.

There are plenty of contemporary style tools used in the Pilates Singapore classes as well and these are resistant bands, inflated exercise balls, rollers etc. Large sized balls are used for traditional Pilates exercises, which require balls rather than mats. It is a good way to boost your muscle engagement and increase your stability as well. Foam rollers are also used for massaging muscles to aid fluid movement. The resistant bands are used for stretching arms or legs while practicing the traditional Pilates exercises.

Pilates_Singapore_151220120902Before you start practicing using these tools and machines, it is highly essential that you remain under guidance of a trained professional. He will know which machine is the best for you, without causing any sorts of damage or harm to your body. So, look into the reputation of a Pilates Singapore studio before enrolling your name there. Reputed studios will be equipped with the necessary tools and also have the best trainers to stay by your side all through your exercise regime.

This article was written by Daisy Fontanez, on behalf of ThePilatesFlow, offering you the best guidance on Pilates training. To explore the core of Pilates, you may also visit

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Posted by on December 15, 2012 in Health